Related Books

Santa María del Águila (Our Lady of the Eagle), Spain

Commemorated on August 15
Santa María del Águila (Our Lady of the Eagle), Spain Santa María del Águila (Our Lady of the Eagle) is the patron of Alcalá de Guadaíra, a Spanish municipality in the province of Seville, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, 15 km from Seville.


he popular version says that at the time of the Muslim invasion, Christians hid the original image of the Virgin in a castle tower, where the found an eagle, after the Reconquista.
His veneration dates back to the thirteenth century. In XX Chronicle Reyes ground that the Holy King Fernando III, conqueror of Alcalá, inhabited this castle between 1246 and 1248 dealing with reconstruction. As usual, the King had to Christianize the mosque and erected the first church Alcalá, consecrating it as was his habit to Santa Maria.
As stated in the file Archbishop's Palace, in pastoral visit in February 1617 the visitor links the name "Eagle" with the second wife of King San Fernando, Doña Juana de Pointhieu, devoted to his birthday San Juan Evangelista, whose symbol is an eagle, even a local tradition gathered by Sánchez Gordillo "The abbot Gordillo" (XVII Century) ensures that gave a posthumous son to San Fernando and was baptized in this church. Words visitor in 1617 that ".. The altarpiece is old, of good paintings and gold is in the middle an image of Our Lady here who have particular devotion. Llámanla Eagle. "We also relate the name to the geographical location, as in our case is the designation of the upper plateau of the Castle, which certainly could have eagles vegas envisioning the Guadalquivir and Guadaira. Both Seville and Utrera, landforms are also nominated as "Eagle".
Rescued Alcalá of Islamic rule, must be the only statue of Our Lady which is entrusted with protecting the citadel, and certainly unique Mariana patronage for centuries. The roots of popular devotion in Alcalá de Guadaíra is absolute. It was the City Council who organized the festivities. Mayors to take possession, swore to defend the purity of Mary. There are prayers processions in times of calamities, drought, pestilence, war ..
The origin of the image seems to have been destroyed in the Reconquista of Ferdinand III. For this reason, it had to be a gothic image seated with the Child in the style of the Virgin de los Reyes, Valme Grace Headquarters Battles, etc.. In the centuries from the Baroque takes a new face that comes to today, to arrange it up, attach the burst and dress her up in traditional costumes of the Royal Court
Would not know how the original image of the Virgen del Aguila, possibly an icon seated, with the child in her lap and lower dimensional natural (Theotokos). Which came to us, standing, surrounded by the blast, and Child in the center, dressed as Queen. His feast, Novena and Procession match the Virgen de los Reyes, as both celebrations were instituted by San Fernando on the day of the Assumption.
In the sad events of 1936, the church was attacked, burned and destroyed the original image. The Brotherhood provided documentation and photographs to Seville Illanes sculptor Antonio Rodriguez, for the Tallahassee a new following the trace of the above; was blessed in 1937 from which date receives continued worship. The initial hieratic respected sculptor Mariano icon, in contrast to the air montañesino frankly printed baby Jesus.
Current image is cedar, called "candlestick" meaning to dress. It measures 165 cms, having carved and ingrown hands and face. The arms are articulated at shoulders, elbows and wrists. Eyebrows painted glass eyes, hair lashes. The most correct nose, mouth having a slight rictus smile, the way the images of his time.
The Child Jesus, also cedar is carved in full, articulated arms and shoulder. His head finely arranged montañesinos loops. Sweet and smiling features, being painted eyes and eyebrows is a beautiful infant, soft tenderness that moves devotion.
The Virgin, standing, smiling, framing her face with a heart shape rostrillo the manner of queens and abbesses Sanchez Coello, while silver burst provides a sense of dynamism and brilliance reminiscent of the halo occurrences.
His contemplation effect produces a sweet peace, promoting the prayer of the believer, and the simple yet curious, warns serenity that emanates from every well-balanced work.
The Virgin is dressed in medieval Queen, embroidered brocade skirt and matching coat. About the rostrillo also wearing a gold embroidered touches, and wears a gold crown medieval trace Act, in keeping with the gothic chiseled silver burst. He holds the Gold Medal of the City and the Staff of perpetual honorary mayor of Alcalá de Guadaíra.
The Child Jesus, also dressed in gold embroidered robe, and a crown, gold has three power law on the head. In his hands a gold locket heart shaped, offering a Filipino devotee, shoes gold shoes Moorish law making. On the Feast of Candlemas, is secular custom view long baton Child christening and covered with a cap, as was done with newborns.
After the reconquest of the city in the thirteenth century, devotion to the Blessed. Virgin has not only maintained, but has been growing. There are many testimonies over the centuries, without extensive claims, we could find in the literary field, and in the very development of the history of this town.
In the sixteenth century, Juan de la Cueva, called "comeback Ave to heaven." In the seventeenth century Cristobal de Monroy who described their festivals in "Source of Jewish" and called "magnet affects divine" and the Abbot Sánchez Gordillo writes: "It is very majestic, often works wonders ... Refer the tradition of being the time of the Goths before the loss of Spain and having been hidden, when the San Fernando Rey won this town, where he built his Church is .. ". In the eighteenth century, Pedro León Serrano, senior clerk of real incomes, in his "Antiquity and Alcalá de Guadaira Foundation" invoked as "Empress of Heaven and Earth" and in the nineteenth, Leandro José de Flores will turned pages dedicated devotion. In the nineteenth century, José María Gutiérrez de Alba, in stanzas sings and writes songs to be interpreted in the Ninth.
In 1993, he published the book "Altars of Our Lady of the Eagle" by D. José María Márquez Catalan, interesting study of figurative ceramics with the image of the Virgin, properties located in the hamlet alcalareño. In 1994, the Brotherhood published the book "La Virgen del Águila", written by Vicente Romero Muñoz. The issue was quickly absorbed by the body brothers, currently being exhausted, and the second edition prepared.
In the historical, love Lady Eagle and service to Temple, was not linked to notable families, but the common people in general, as evidenced by the maintenance of Worship, Procession and Ninth, with the same parameters, with the same text written for centuries to date, the song of the popular, secular savior "Hail Virgin pure" and radical resistance of the people to order demolition of the temple when the early nineteenth century, had serious problems in structure finally acometiéndose restoration.
Another physical proof of the vigor and effectiveness of devotion, is the continued rebuilding of the temple, rebuilt and raised many times it has been necessary. Consist works in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth century, and in recent centuries, in 1802, 1911, 1942 and 1964, the date of the last major restoration.
The Virgin Eagle is the first devotion of Alcalá. Has been awarded the Gold Medal of the City and granted the Staff of Mayor Perpetua. Besides being dedicated the main street of Alcala, has erected a monument in the main square and has given name to two suburbs (Our Lady of the Eagle and Lady Eagle). In Sevilla has given name to a parish, in a street in the Barrio de los Remedios, and living on Social Security at the University Hospital, the main street in the City of San Juan de Dios, the Salesian College of Alcala, the largest dredge the Guadalquivir, many stores are named Alcalá even an olive cooperative, a gas station, driving school, etc.. and recorded his effigy in many headstones.
The importance of devotion, is credited for the fact that in almost all households Alcalá, and many shops, offices or business premises, chairing the Image of Our Patroness, the unitive being the most apostolic activities and considered one of the main signs of identity of Alcalá de Guadaíra.
On June 3, two thousand, will always be remembered as the most important event in the Alcalá Marian Marian history, and greater participation of the Eucharist ever held in Alcalá. In the Castle esplanade, concentrated between 8000 and 10,000 people to attend the Pontifical Academy where the Hon. Archbishop of Seville, Carlos Amigo Vallejo, Canonically Crowned the image of Santa María del Águila.
The Corona was fully donated by Alcalá; were hundreds of small supply of gold (bracelets, salcillos, chains, rings etc. ..) that once cast were laminated and given to the goldsmith Don Fernando Marmolejo Camargo, who following the suggestions of the Brotherhood , made a portentous crown spending nearly three kilos of gold Act, sixteen and twenty brilliant aquamarines.
The Virgin Eagle's patron and mayor of Alcalá de Guadaíra Perpetua, having received authority from the City Council Gold Medal of the City.
The church of Santa María del Águila, was built with public money, Treasury Castilla, no church , so that for centuries was considered "regional Board", speaking the King on the appointment of Parsons and Beneficiaries, system administration and maintenance , burials etc. Anyway, having been the royal residence alcalareño Castillo not only of Fernando III, but several later medieval kings, Santa Maria had to be remodeled and embellished. On the window of the tower that once housed the baptismal font, carved in stone there is a suggestive Flor de Lis, a sign of royalty. This held true during the time that the fort belonged to the Marquis of Cadiz, the almost completely rebuilt. This time an interesting mural fresco leading ship painting epistle is preserved, and is an interesting example of International Gothic painting style. (Fifteenth century), very similar to those in San Isidoro del Campo (Santiponce).
From its former glory and wealth is no evidence in the Archiepiscopal Guestbooks where the paneling of the ceiling "stew in gold" is described. There is also evidence because they were scheduled before its destruction, several tables located in the magnificent High Altar primitive attributed to Sanchez de Castro, Alejo Fernández, (S. XV); rich costumes, and ancient silver-gilt monstrance.
The church was faithful until the sixteenth century when epidemics of plague and the end of the war, allowed the population to leave the city walls and down looking for the comfort of the water and the banks of Guadaíra. Nevertheless, the major festivals, Easter Crafts, etc. .. Corpus Christi procession, celebrated continued until the end of the eighteenth century in this church, whose parish Cruz lined crimson damask, maintains its preeminence over the others.
The construction of the building corresponds to the so-called "primitive Sevillian parish church" or "Mudejar church" three ships of different width, parallel to its axis and Gothic Chapel, opened by a large pointed arch arches. Its construction is lesser size, very similar to the Santa Marina church Seville (XIV century).
It is built with the altar to the west, facing the sunset, as provided in the Liturgy. Accessed by two covers: A principal, pointed, crowned with battlements and another side, neoclassical, with brick steps.
A feature of this temple is the forced location purely Gothic chapel, between the nave and apse of the Epistle, which suggests that initially could try a single ship which was adapted to the Mudejar building modules of three ships.
The Main Chapel, on stone (XIV century), International Gothic style. Serves Camarín the Virgin, and rises from the rest of the church by a presbytery, his forehead decorated with tiles s. XVII, repeat and mimic two-headed eagles "Mary slave."
In the center an altar upon two shafts without bases, with elegant Arab capitals Albenca made by Gómez, being left a stone staircase, developed in central shaft that accesses the roof, stepped battlements which are visible from the outside.
Continuing the chancel two steps Spandex, with burials, provide a third plane on the Altar of the Virgin stands. The dressing room has beautiful ribbed twelve nerves that start eight pillars with carved capitals, which converge on three points from the central axis. The five sides of the chapel are covered with polychrome tiles on mudejárico canon of Santa Paula. One of the pillars, retains the original tiling.
Inside you can admire today, was conducted during 1911 works. It is occupied by the throne of the Virgin, the Roman doselete polygonal tile design famous Seville José Díaz Gestoso and bleachers. The canopy was drawn by the painter Jiménez Aranda. The Franco brothers opened Pineda five mullioned windows, the previous macizadas Altar polyptych again. The Virgin sits on an eagle with outspread wings, sketch Antonio Illanes, carved by Guzmán Bejarano Manuel Calvo and stew .. The apostolate of the canopy and the Way of the Cross in gold and sienna is the work of Romera Ojeda. The railings and pulpit are forges seventeenth century.
In the center of the altar , the tabernacle with the Blessed Sacrament, and his lamp burning. On the ground, burial of Alcalá priests, the latter being the Hon. Mr. Andrés Galindo Campos, a distinguished son of this city, Vicar General of the Archdiocese, and endeavored promoter of devotion to the patron.
The head of the nave of the Epistle consists of a Gothic chapel, very old, perhaps remotely Islamic Cuba, which had to be head of the primitive parish of St. Mary, a single nave. Its vault is protected with hemispherical dome, visible from the outside, being the corners of stonework. It is the aforementioned Gothic fresco painting executed (S. XV) in mixed style, having been hidden for centuries after the ancient altar of Santa Ana, has allowed to come to this day without repainting, touch ups or restorations.
This Chapel has outside a barred window high saetera, campeando on the front a lily, symbol of authority and purity, Navarre base by the same name, dedicated to the Virgin, and recreated in France, which led to Coat of their kings. Like her, according to traditions collected by Abad Gordillo, was baptized a son of San Fernando and his second wife Joan of Pontieu, French, could be as a souvenir.
The south wall that encloses the nave of the Epistle is brick and could correspond to the structure of the old mosque.
At the head of the ship of the gospel , the altar is located in San Mateo, carved cedar executed in Renaissance style in the last third of the eighteenth century. The image is the work of Calderón Pineda. There is also a free chapel, slow Gothic ribbed vault and Moorish battlements outside, separated from the Church by a magnificent iron gate. This Chapel, today Chapterhouse, was carved by Diego Martínez de Coria in 1525. The grid gives details on the burial of Fernández Cleric and family. Year 1616. Under it there are two vaulted crypt. In addition to serving their employers burial, it was installed the Monument to the Blessed. Today's Chapter House where they are exposed in three magnificent mahogany cabinets, step and processional cloak of the Blessed. Virgin, the former Cross Parish, banner of the Brotherhood, Coronation Script, lanterns and candlesticks guide. From this chapel is accessed columbarium Brotherhood.
The north wall that encloses the nave of the gospel is of mud, and the open three gates, access sacristy lampadario and Santeria house, and a large arched stained glass window where the city shield and legend warns " I rebuilt Alcalá 1964. "
The three ships have marble floors and cream colored sockets. Are covered with a fireproof roof decorated with glazed tiles in brilliant solution expert Don Luis Alvarez Selma. From the ceiling hangs a large Spanish style lamp, forging González Navarro.
He chairs the courtyard outside the church forged a cross of s. XVII which was placed at the time of the Tower.
The astial is mud and he ojivada the front door opens, and three small windows that give light to the interior. A tile to the right of the front door reminds us that the Church is added to the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome.
Along the side, neoclassical door, we found a ceramic altarpiece of Seville rate, tejaroz, representing Our Lady of the Eagle, the work of its donor, the artist Martin Bermudo alcalareño "Campitos" 1942.
Then the old tower that houses the mural painting, with Gothic windows and edges of stonework, which is covered with Arabic dome and was probably head of the early church of Santa Maria. In a way, it is superimposed on the Chapel, with its five mullioned windows between external buttresses, which neutralize the inner thrust of the arches, then topped with triangular battlements staggered, also called merlons, the Orientals only place in religious buildings.
The dogs, some badly worn, representing under gothic, Marian signs of salvation, like Jacob's ladder, or apostolic union, as Saint Andrew's Cross, not anthropomorphic and zoomorphic missing other esoteric character.
Although both the devotion to Our Lady of the Eagle as its church date back to the thirteenth century, the Brotherhood not founded until the late nineteenth century.
The Brotherhood of Santa María del Águila is canonically erected in the church of Santa María del Águila, the year 1891 promoted by the priests of the city and a number of lay people who wish to have a valid legal instrument for channeling popular devotion to our Patron and the maintenance of the temple. The initiative was the pastor of St. James Don Fernando Díaz García, who met individuals who felt more able to organize the Brotherhood within the group of practicing Catholics that he as pastor of the principal church of the town, well known. Agreed the initial rules were approved by ecclesiastical authority effective August 5, 1891.
In establishing rules adopted as the main purpose of the Brotherhood spread and keep the Cult of Our Lady of the Eagle-Patroness of Alcalá de Guadaíra-and to do a number of functions and religious ceremonies in which detailed articulated fixing among others: Main Function of the Institute-August 15 Assumption Day-Novena and Procession, Feast Day of the Holy Name of Mary, San Fernando and Function a Requiem Mass for the dead brothers.
By Apostolic Letters received from the Holy See dated September 9, 1892, were granted by Pope Leo XIII, the following indulgences and spiritual brothers thanks.
Granting of Plenary Indulgence for all brothers who are already enrolled, provided truly repentant and confessed, received the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist.
Grant of plenary indulgence to all the faithful who enroll in the Guild, provided that, on the day of the truly penitent and confessed income, receive the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist.
Granting of Plenary Indulgence for all brothers at the time of death, truly repentant, confessed and repaired with Holy Communion, or else THEY MAY, contrite at least invocaren devoutly to be possible with the mouth, but with the heart name of Jesus.
Granting of Plenary Indulgence for all brothers on the day of the Assumption, August 15, devoutly visitaren the church, and there elevaren prayers to God for Concord Christian Princes.
Forgiveness of seven years and seven quarantines penance that they have been imposed to the brothers, whenever visitaren the one church of the four days to bring the Guild, subject to approval of ecclesiastical authority, truly repentant, confessed and strengthened by the Holy Communion.
Sorry sixty days penances that have been imposed are brothers, whenever assisting authorizing Masses are held in the church, or attend the processions with the Blessed Sacrament.
Sorry sixty days penances that have been imposed are brothers, whenever recitaren five times the Lord's Prayer and the Hail Mary for the souls of the deceased brothers or ejercieren any other work of piety and charity.
Finally, it is expressly stated: "Having to enforce these perpetually in the coming days."
The Pontifical Brief was written in Latin and the Brotherhood in its custody the original document file.
During the last third of the twentieth century, the Brotherhood knows unprecedented expansion. The institution becomes more dynamic and present in the social events of the city. The objectives achieved at this stage will be multiple, the consolidation of the feast of the Candelaria as one of the most important religious holiday of Alcalá, where each year attend mothers with their newborns for submission to the Virgin.
On 3 June 2000, is undoubtedly one of the most glorious in Alcalá devotion to its patron dates. In the forecourt of the castle, the Archbishop of Seville Carlos Amigo Vallejo, canonically crowned the Blessed. Virgen del Águila to more than eight thousand people, in the most stunning Eucharist celebrated in the history of Alcalá. The Hon. Mr. Vicar General Antonio Domínguez D. Valverde, read Coronation Decree which was dated May 30, 2000.


The patron saint, La Virgen del Aguila, in a procession on 15 August to walk the streets and squares of the town's patron saint. His fellowship was established in 1891 and lost its assets in 1936 to be burned the old sanctuary, needing to replace the likes of the other owner, Antonio Rodríguez Illanes. In 2000 she was crowned canonically.
La Virgen del Águila delivery by 1st time in the field of Beatas (small neighborhood located south of the city), from the Church of Santa Maria and San Miguel.
In 2010 La Virgen del Águila went in procession through all the churches of the city, in the course of one week.




Additional information